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Read eBook Ö The Gladiators Paperback ê ➥ [Epub] ➟ The Gladiators By Arthur Koestler ➯ – Gym-apparel.co.uk Arthur Koestler's first novel set in the late Roman Republic tells the story of the revolt of Spartacus and man's search for Utopia The first of three novels concerned with the 'ethics of revolution' Arthur KTher the end justifies the means an argument continued in his classic novels Darkness at Noon and Arrival and Departure Though I like Koestler's Darkness at Noon better this was still an interesting read about Roman history Spartacus and the slave rebellion Even with 3 stars it's worth reading

eBook ´ The Gladiators ¶ Arthur Koestler

H for Utopia The first of three novels concerned with the 'ethics of revolution' it addresses the age old debate of whe I’m Spartacus No I’m Spartacus This is not the Spartacus that Kubrick and Douglas prepared you forPublished in 1930 The Gladiators is the first of a trilogy by Hungarian author and journalist Arthur Koestler that deals with the ethics of revolution Using Spartacus’s revolt against the Roman Republic around 65BC this novel explores idealism through the lens of 20th Century Europe just as it is about to collapse into another World War Democracy and Communism Capitalism and Marxism Status uo and Revolution Koestler was less interested in portraying an accurate historical account than he was at using this moment in history to explore modern times Koestler was a man at odds with himself and he demonstrates this in his storytelling At the time of this novel the author was still a member of the Communist Party A typical proletarian novel would praise the revolution and raise the masses to heroic levels as a type of self serving embrace of the movement Yet Koestler opts to use Spartacus as a foil for the failure of that mass movement His Sun State was meant to be a brotherhood – a utopian paradise It is an orderly world where needs are met and work for all exists but eventually dissenters force Spartacus to begin ruling with a harsher hand As an idealist Spartacus struggled with trying to maintain his vision of a Sun States versus allowing people to determine their own destinies regardless if the results were self destructive In the end he allowed those around him to make the decisions that would lead to internecine among his followers and their executions at the hands of the Romans Koestler was at a crossroads He still embraced Marxism as a philosophy but struggled with how the system would attain universal appeal At its core this novel explores his disappointment with revolutionary failure Koestler debated whether the actual loss of life could be justified by an abstract ideal A Lenin or a Stalin would not find an issue in this debate but Koestler’s Spartacus certainly did By 1938 Koestler left the Communist Party Sure enough it was because Stalin had finally disillusioned him and gave flesh to his greatest fears Koestler could never embrace Totalitarianism as a “means to an end” – even if that end was a utopian brotherhood The Gladiators is less a story about historical Spartacus than it is about Koestler himself And this couldn't be apropos In a life dramatic than fiction Koestler’s War Years would keep him busy denounced by former Communist colleagues chased around Europe by Nazis joining the French Foreign Legion deserting when he arrived in Northern Africa jailed in England for arriving without a permit and eventually working with the British Ministry of Information writing propaganda During this tumultuous time he even found time to write the next two novels in the trilogy as he continued to struggle with the values of idealism Clearly this review is less about Spartacus and about Koestler because he is the actual context of the storyHighly recommended for students of 20th century political philosophy maybe less so for those wanting a historical fiction novel about ancient Rome

Arthur Koestler ¶ The Gladiators text

The GladiatorsArthur Koestler's first novel set in the late Roman Republic tells the story of the revolt of Spartacus and man's searc This is a deeply disturbing novel about the failure of mass revolutionary movements It contrasts the conscious self interest of privileged elites with the self interest of the masses and observes that there is one fundamental 'law' that operates beneath the surface of the facades of 'order' and 'patriotism' namely the fatalistic assertion of the leader of the fierce and melancholic Celts the gladiator Crixus that the law is simply Eat or be eatenEvery ideal of human progress is punctured in this often underrated novel yet as asserted in the chapter in which 'the man with the bullet head' an Israelite Essene inspires the Thracian gladiator Spartacus with a vision of universal justice from the latter Jewish prophets the tattered nobility of this defeat is reminiscent of the Christian version of a death on a cross that was also to lead to some final victory over brute nature And Spartacus at the end of the book walks post mortem like a resurrected Jesus among the devastated; his vision they refuse to let dieBased upon the historic revolt of 73 71 BC this event was one of the great revolutions of ancient history a slave revolt that threatened the power of the Roman empire; a revolt that if it had succeeded would have mirrored the triumph of the Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917 20 Lenin's favorite character in history is said to have been precisely the gladiator of the school in Capua Spartacus who emerged as the primary commander of the slave forces; however the real leader in Koestler's novel is the gladiator without ambition or ideals 'the man with the seal's head' CrixusCrixus is the expression of vengeance as justice and indulgence as the compensation for privation and exploitation understanding that the rich and the powerful always win in the end so the only sensible response is to take everything you can while you can It is an ignoble even ignorant attitude but the cynicism of the fat eually self indulgent and also deeply unhappy Roman banker become general Marcus Crassus uite reflects Crixus' own In a scene of a pre 'last battle' interview between Crassus and Spartacus the latter actually notes even the physical resemblance between the rich man and the proletarian slave gladiator which of course is a recognition of kindred motivation the union of 'eaters' from 'above' and 'below' so to speakThere is plenty of mayhem in this book but essentially it is for those who are willing to ask uestions about base human nature and live with the results The characterizations are finely drawn complex and varied and the novelized history is fascinating